• -2381 DR
  • Beholders appear in the Alimir Mountains and swiftly overrun the eastern garrisons of Calimshan before being pushed back into the mountains. The beholder city of Zokir, the City of Orbs, is established. The Tavihr Dynasty ends with the assassination of its bakkal and fire claiming the western half of Calimport. The Erehnir Dynasty comes to power in Calimshan. »

  • -1900 DR
  • The Caltazar Hills come under regular attack from the beholder nations around and beneath the Lake of Steam. »

  • -1428 DR
  • Calimport falls with the death of Syl-Pahsa Violir Cajaan IX, and beholders rule the ruined city of Calimport and its vassal empire. Qyraaptir the Bloodeye, a beholder-mage of frightening power, claims the Pasha's Throne. Beholders now rule all major settlements throughout Calimshan, Iltkazar and the Lake of Steam.

    Due to the disruption caused by the beholders, trade between Tzindylspar and Calimshan collapses almost overnight. »

  • -1403 DR
  • The Cajaan Vengeance
    The outer districts of Calimport are set afire in an attempt to smoke out the occupying beholders during a siege of the city. »

  • -1402 DR
  • Qyraaptir the Bloodeye (a beholder mage) and its beholder forces fall or flee before the Drakhon priests and their allied human soldiers. Calimport is the first city freed of beholder domination, and Calimshan is free of beholder rulers within three years, thanks to the rule of the Drakhon pashas. The beholders retreat to their strongholds beneath the Alimir Mountains and along the Lake of Steam. »

  • -1400 DR
  • The attacks on the Caltazar Hills by the beholder nations of the Lake of Steam end. »

  • -1280 DR
  • The Alimir Penninsula erupts into war between Calimshan's armies and the restored beholder nations. The beholder, Qyraaptir the Bloodeye now commands all the hive's surface armies, not just one legions. »

  • c. -1150 DR
  • Syl-Pasha Kamal el Drakhon commissions the building of el Qysanallojal (Imperial Navy), and this allows Calimshan to begin controlling the coastal lands and waters of the Shining Sea. Originally built to speed troop movements against the beholder armies, the Qysanallojal swiftly expands Calimshan's political and trade influence. »

  • -1130 DR
  • The Battle of the Samesaj Gate:
    The eastern garrison of Akkabbel (present-day Ithal Pass) is the scene of great victory for Calimshan, as the besieged forces of Akkabbel gain reinforcements from Calimport through a magical portal. They break the siege and inflict great losses on the beholders. The portal remains intact after the battle, but only its caster (the vizir Ali el Samesaj) knows that it is keyed to the full moon's light more than other magic. This great victory over the beholder forces sees Samesaj raised to the title of Grand Vizir at the right hand of Syl-Pasha Ruj el Drakhon. »

  • -1080 DR
  • End of the wars between Calimshan and the beholder nations of the Alimir Mountains with the victory at Mintarn. The Pasha's Throne at Calimport now rules from the Sword Coast to Mintarn. The increased trade and influence sees Calimport nearly double in size (to nearly the size of present-day Waterdeep). »

  • c. -1050 DR
  • The Lake of Steam beholders are slowly driven underground again by Calimshan's navy between this time and -680 DR. Infrequent, tentative trade begins with Chult and the Tashalar. »

  • -359 DR [Year of Boiling Moats]
  • Three mighty phaerimm sorcerers (who call themselves the Triumvirate; Phindounma the Abominable, Scalmarel the Sage, Ygnaroth the Necroseer) subvert the beholers of Ooltul, the eastern outpost of the great beholder nation Xun'Qoroth. »

  • -182 DR [Year of Sleeping Giants]
  • Calimshan, in its attempts to reconquer its old territories around the Lake of Steam and the Shaar, discovers that the old threat of the beholders has risen again. Beholders and thier cultists control the majority of territory east of Ankhapur and are now pushing their forces west (or immediately up and out of the Alimir Mountains) in retribution against the Calishite invasion. »

  • The Eye Tyrant Wars
  • -170 DR to -166 DR
    Calimshan allies with Tethyr and Iltkazar to fight the risen beholder powers of the Arnaden. »

  • -170 DR [Year of Many Eyes]
  • Almraiven falls to beholders within the first three months of the year, and Suldolphor follows by Greengrass. Though a longer struggle, the beholders control the Spider Swamp and the southern Forest of Mir by the end of Kythorn. This prevents much transfer of troops from western Calimshan except directly into beholder-controlled strongholds. »

  • -167 DR [Year of Sudden Kinship]
  • Uktar 1 The Storming of the Qatarn Hills
    In the first five days of Uktar, King Silvam of Tethyr and Qayadin Revaod el Simaal lead the Fourth Army to victory over nine beholders and three times their army's own force. »

  • Nightal The beholders occupy Volothamp and Schamedar by year's end, though their entrenchment within eastern Calimshan overextends their reach, and the beholders lose control of Ankhapur, one of their largest surface strongholds. »

  • -166 DR [Year of Seven Loves Lost]
  • The Eye Tyrant Wars end, though alliances remain among the human powers to pursue renegade beholders for the next few years among all their lands. »

  • -150 DR [Year of Recompense]
  • Syl-Pasha Kamus yn Tasyn el Tarshaj of Calimport grants Tethyr the region known as Ankaram, the lands west of the Forest of Mir and north of the River Memnon. Although many in Tethyr believe this to be a reward for their aid in the Eye Tyrant Wars, it is a political move to weaken Calishite nobles amassing power against el Tarshaj. »

  • 142 DR [Year of the Prowling Naga]
  • Beholder clans descend from the Curna Mountains and conquer Assur, enslaving the humans and establishing themselves as princes. »

  • 143 DR [Year of the Smiling Princess]
  • Durpari forces unsuccessfully attempt to free Assur from the clutches of the beholder princes of Veldorn. »